Emergency Hospital, a surgical center set up by an Italian NGO to treat war casualties, said it had admitted more than 40 wounded after the blast.
The news agency Reuters reported that the United Nations and several countries, including Pakistan and the United Kingdom, condemned the attack.
A photo of the blast site claimed by Reuters showed at least nine people dead or wounded outside the foreign ministry, which Afghan government officials confirmed.
The explosion occurred around 4 pm local time in Kabul, Zadran said.
Islamic State (IS) claimed responsibility for the attack, the militant group’s news agency Amaq said in one of its Telegram channels.